Apollo Command Module Training Card
If you are looking for a way to enhance your knowledge about the apollo command module, then you are in luck! You will find that there are many online resources available to help you learn more about apollo. These resources include video clips, images, and interactive training cards. With the help of these resources, you will be able to learn about apollo command modules, their history, and how they operate.
Spacecraft’s six stages
There were a number of key elements in the Apollo program, including a command and service module, which is used to carry a crew of three astronauts to the Moon and back. The SM provided electrical power and a variety of consumables for the crew.
This was a great feat of engineering and was a true testament to the efforts of many. While the technology was certainly impressive, it did not come without its challenges.
A lunar orbit rendezvous was the best route to take, but it was an extremely challenging endeavor. Several aerospace companies had bid on the task. Some of them were already building spacecraft, like North America. Others were still in the planning stages. In the end, the decision was made by the team at NASA.
For years, NASA had considered the moon landing as its next goal, but had been thwarted by a variety of hurdles. The problem was that the technology was not as advanced as they had hoped.
There were a number of studies conducted, including a study by the Martin Company and a study by Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. Both companies studied the same concepts, but the results of each study differed slightly.
The most interesting part of the lunar orbit rendezvous was that it was not the only possible route. Another route, a land landing, was also on the table.
The Apollo program was a great example of organization. NASA and the space flight community worked together to achieve the Moon landing by the end of the decade. At the time, astronauts were trained in simulators that didn’t reflect the latest innovations.
Apollo spacecraft were equipped with computers that helped astronauts navigate and operate their ships. These computers were operated by NASA personnel and were used to transmit data to the command module.
The Apollo Guidance Computer, located in the command module, was the primary guidance, navigation, and control system for the Lunar Module. It was powered by a dual NOR gate chip and had a ground connection.
It was also equipped with an onboard S-band radio transmitter. When the Apollo spacecraft was close to Earth, its antennas sent signals to the USB Apollo ground stations. This data was then transmitted to the spacecraft.
AGC software was written in AGC assembly language and was stored on read-only rope memory. Astronauts could access the memory contents through a DSKY interface. However, the majority of the software was not able to be changed in operation.
The Abort Guidance System was another component of the AGC. This system was designed to launch from the Moon and rendezvous with the command module.
The re-entry course was calculated at the ground Real-Time Computing center and then sent to the spacecraft. Once in deep space, the spacecraft could receive a signal from the Deep Space Tracking Network (DSTN).
DSTN consisted of huge, 85-foot-wide movable radio dishes. Data was received by DSTN stations and processed by a series of UNIVAC computer systems.
NASA was the first organization to give computer chips responsibility for human life. The chips were good enough to keep the spacecraft’s astronauts safe as they traveled to the Moon.
IBM was a major system integrator of the Apollo program. The company’s involvement started in the 1950s. They also provided support for ground-based mission control computer systems at NASA.
Mission mode without Nova: Earth Orbit Rendezvous
Earth Orbit Rendezvous (EOR) was an alternative mission mode that would have enabled the Apollo spacecraft to perform the same mission without the need for Nova. It would have been a very expensive mission. However, NASA pressed ahead with the plan.
In the early 1960s, NASA had two main options to get to the Moon. The first was to use the giant Nova booster to get to the Moon, and the second was to land on the surface with a reusable spacecraft.
There were no clear winners when it came to determining which approach would win the race. There was indecision amongst NASA’s movers and shakers, which was a stumbling block for companies such as Convair and General Electric.
One thing that stood out was that the USSR had started experimenting with rendezvous profiles. These were a set of mathematical formulas that were supposed to allow a spacecraft to dock with another.
NASA had to decide on a mission mode before any spacecraft could be built. A decision was only made on October 11, 1962. This was not a surprise, as it was the deadline by which Apollo was due to land on the Moon.
The Lundin Committee was tasked with identifying the most viable manned lunar landing methods. Although the panel studied a variety of vehicle systems, its recommendation was that the lunar landing was best achieved by using a combination of earth and lunar orbits.
In the end, the Lundin committee determined that Earth Orbit Rendezvous was the winner. As a result, NASA reaffirmed its dedication to this approach.
The Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) and the Space Task Group (SSG) both supported the scheme. However, the SSG was not entirely sold on the concept.
CM pilot’s LM ascent engine fails to fire
The Apollo LM included a descent engine for orbital insertion maneuvers. It also included a landing gear and an electrical system. These components were powered by the LM’s dc main bus B.
One of the most complex systems on board the LM was the ascent propulsion system (aka Ascent Engine). This system is located inside the LM’s cabin. The system provides for the automatic ignition of fuels on contact.
The LM’s ascent stage fired for a mere 362.4 seconds. That was the fastest firing time of any spacecraft of the era.
The LM had 2,181 ampere hours of batteries, making it able to provide power for ninety hours. Its batteries would have to be recharged during the reentry process.
During the ascent, the CM pilot’s button to ignite the ascent engine failed to operate. Grumman recommended that it be replaced with a more reliable mechanism.
However, this mechanism was not installed until the LM arrived at its destination. There were many reasons for the failure. In addition, the LM did not have a proper fuel tank and the reentry system did not have a working pump.
NASA officials had discovered that most of the qualification tests for the ascent engine had only been done on one injector. They were able to use another injector to test its performance.
The LM’s ascent and descent engines were designed to have a 45-hour lifetime. To make the most of this, the crew reduced water consumption to six ounces a day. Also, they had to deal with dehydration.
The first docked SPS engine firing took place just six hours into the mission. It was to verify the interface between the spacecraft and its engine. The first docked SPS engine firing was also the first time the LM was docked to the CM.
CM pilot’s CM is outfitted for Skylab rescue
One of the two spacecraft used in the Apollo program was the Command/Service Module. Designed to serve as an exploration vehicle, it provided the astronauts with propulsion and storage for supplies.
The Command/Service Module was designed to ferry astronauts to and from Skylab, the Moon’s outpost. It served as a rendezvous point for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft, enabling astronauts to land on the Moon.
It was constructed of a thermally bonded honeycomb core. An outer skin of aluminum was welded onto the core. It was covered with tempered silica glass and a blue-red reflective coating on the inner surface.
It contained a central pressure vessel, which had an internal volume of 210 cubic feet. Inside, it housed crew seating, equipment bays, guidance and navigation systems, and the main control panels.
In addition to housing the spacecraft’s personnel, the command module also provided equipment for re-entry and splashdown. This included a flashing beacon and a retractable forward-facing spotlight.
The command module’s main display panel measured seven feet wide and three feet tall. There were 40 instruments, including event indicators, fuel cell gauges, audio controls, and battery controls.
Aft of the pilot’s seat, the pilot’s panel was composed of a combination of rotating controllers and environmental controls. During docking procedures, the COAS provided gross range and closing rate cues.
Aft of the pilot’s seats, the service module was connected to the command module with six compression pads. These were bolted together by a ratchet mechanism driven by a pump handle.
The Service Module provided electrical power for the spacecraft. It also held a heat shield made of titanium. The Service Module was constructed to hold a cargo of about 17,000 pounds.